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Rhetorical Means – Rhetorische Mittel 14:04 min

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Transkript Rhetorical Means – Rhetorische Mittel

Hello and let me welcome you to this click. If you want to learn everything about rhetorical means in the English language then you have chosen the right video. I will teach you all the necessary terms, explain their meaning and show you how they can be used in a sentence. I am only going to use English today. So you may want to have a dictionary near you in case you need to look up some words. I will give you a tip: If you don't understand something I am saying simply click on the pause-button and look the word up before you continue watching. Like I said today's topic is rhetorical means. Sometimes this is also called stylistic devices or figures of speech. So all of these mean more or less the same thing. Let's get more practical. Brian bought a bag of biscuits. Sounds interesting. Brian bought a bag of biscuits. This technique is called alliteration. It describes the repetition of the first sound in a sentence. It is typical of poetry. Good poets used this technique. Not only because it sounds good but because also it reinforces the meaning and purpose of the sentence. It is used to create melody, establish mood or call attention to important words. Now look at this sentence: The software included a Trojan Horse. Trojan Horse is here an allusion. This is another rhetorical device. Allusion refers to information assumed to be known by the reader. So whoever wrote the sentence about the Trojan Horse assumes that you as a reader know that this figure originally comes from Greek mythology. Allusion is typically a reference to something that is generally known. Like a war, a TV character, a well known literature character, famous people, history, Greek mythology or the bible. In every cry of every man, in every infant's cry of fear, in every voice, in every ban. This is a sentence taken from the writings of William Blake. What do you notice here? Yes, the word "every" is repeated all the time. This is called anaphora. It means the repetition of a word or phrase at the start of every phrase or sentence. This is used in plays or in famous speeches. Now consider this sentence: She has done nothing, accomplished nothing, achieved nothing. This is a group of sentences or clauses which starts with the weakest and then builds to a high point in order to achieve effect. This is called climax. This term can also refer to the high point of a story or a play. One more example for you: Some stories are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some to be chewed and digested. Then there is the so called anticlimax which is just the exact opposite of climax. It describes a text or sentences which go from the most important to the least important facts. Like in this sentence: This gives you an idea of his love of God, freedom, justice and sports cars. This rhetorical technique can often create a funny effect. Now look at this pair of words: life and death. This is called contrast. You simply put two ideas or terms that are opposites next to each other. That was easy but now look at this term: a cliche. This describes words or phrases that have been used so often that they have become more or less meaningless. Like: hungry as wolf or as dead as a doornail or as cool as a cucumber. Now look at these sentences: Heard the news, yet? Been to Paris lately?, Paul asked. A word is missing in those sentences, right? You call this ellipsis. The writer omits a word but that doesn't cause any problems to the reader as the message is still easily understood. Read this sentence now: I love her eyes, her hair, her nose, her cheeks, her lips... This rhetorical device is called enumeration. You list words or ideas one after the other because you want to show the importance of what you are saying. Now what is the difference between the following sentences? She passed away. She died. Not much of a difference really. Both sentences mean the same that she is no longer alive. But there is one difference. The first sentence sounds a bit more positive. You say something bad in the nicest way possible. In other words: You say something that is considered unpleasant or hurtful in a nice and acceptable manner. This is called euphemism. I've told you a thousand times: don't say that word aloud! I've told you a thousand times. This rhetorical device is called exaggeration. I haven't really told you a thousand times but I have told you enough times. You use this when you want to emphasize something. It can have a funny effect. I could eat a horse! Now could that person really eat a horse? I don't think so. This person simply wants to show us that he or she is really hungry. This is called a hyperbole. Be careful with the pronunciation. Hyperbole. Let's now talk about irony because this is often present in any kind of text. Basically irony describes the use of words that imply the opposite of what they actually mean. There is a contrast between what seems to be and what it actually is. Like in this sentence: What a clever idea! When you actually mean how stupid or when a speaker says: What lovely weather we are heaving! during a storm. Let's talk about metaphors because they are also very often present in a text. A metaphor is a figure of speech and it is basically a comparison but without the use of words "like" or "as". It compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. It really implies that one thing is another thing. Metaphor is a bit hard to explain but is easily understood with practical examples. So look: She is a pig when she eats. Is she a real pig? I mean an animal. No, but she's right near looks like one when she eats. Or this example: He is an angel in class. This means that he is not a real angel but he behaves so well. More examples for you: Her home was a prison. Obviously her home was not a real prison but it certainly felt like one. And one more: You are my sunshine. Look at these sentences now: Less is more. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. These are called paradox. It is a statement that seems to contradict itself but often it expresses the truth. So it may seem absurd but at the same time it may be true. I must be cruel only to be kind. And then there is a very similar technique called oxymoron. This is basically a paradox of two contradictory words in which the first word describes the second. Deafening silence. A new classic. Alone together. He arrived in slow haste. This was chaos organised. Do you see all the contradicting meanings? Okay, are you still with me? There is only a couple of literature terms left. Keep watching! It will be worth it! Look at this sentence. What do you think is the literature technique here? The sun smiled on the happy town. Here we see that inanimate objects like sun or town are given human qualities. The sun smiled on the happy town. This is called personification. Okay, let's move on to the next one: repetition. This is easy. You frequently use the same word or phrase in a piece of writing. For example: This is a very, very difficult question. Or: And that government of the people, by the people, for the people, ... Now look at this question: Who knows? Is this a real question? Now it isn't. It's the so called rhetorical question where no answer is required. Mostly because the answer is obvious. Who knows? The answer "nobody knows" is clear from the question itself. When you give rhetorical questions you don't expect any answers. Not let's talk about sarcasm. This is a bit like irony but the difference is that irony only shows opposing ideas and is often funny. Whereas sarcasm is often aggressive and often insulting and aimed at a person. So we can say that sarcasm is a type of irony but it's much more extreme. For example when a teacher says: I'm sure our English expert Tom will be able to give us an excellent explanation of this grammar! When in fact Tom is the worst student in this class. Or: You are a wonderful goalkeeper. Said to someone who is really bad at that. Love is like oxygen. This is called a simile. It is a bit like metaphor but it uses the words "like" or "as". My love is like a red, red rose. Last two literally terms. Are you ready? A symbol: You have an abstract idea and you represent it by something concrete. For example a red rose can be a symbol of love or a cross is a symbol for Christianity or a dove is a symbol of peace. So called understatement. That is a comment that you make in a somehow less important way but it actually helps you to achieve a considerable effect on the listener and increase the actual importance of what is being said. For example: I made two or three bucks today. When in reality you earned a lot of money today. Uff that was something, wasn't it? I am so hungry now I could eat a horse which was by the way a hyperbole. I really think that you know all this terms and use them when you analyse literary texts at school. Your teacher will love it but I know that it is quite a lot to remember. So why don't you watch this video once or twice again. Actually you can watch as many times you want. Good luck with rhetorical means and of course with everything else. See you next time. Bye!  

11 Kommentare
  1. Cool 003

    Meiner Meinung nach ist die Reihenfolge der Stilmittel suboptimal. So hätte ich die "metaphors" mit den "Similes" gegenübergestellt oder hätte "ähnliche Strukturen" wie zum Beispiel Anaphern und Alliterationen gegenübergestellt. Sonst ein gutes Video.

    Von Robert Viehbeck, vor mehr als einem Jahr
  2. 041

    gutes Video
    (sehr langer Video :0)

    Von salih han b., vor mehr als einem Jahr
  3. Default

    Dear Katarina, that is an excelent presentation. You did a very good job. Though your vidoe is long (14 min,) it is not difficult to listen and stay focused. Very helpful. And solid information. Thanks.

    Von Iris M., vor fast 2 Jahren
  4. Img 0339

    Eine komplexere Übung könnte nicht schaden! Ansonsten informatives Video.

    Von Marco L., vor mehr als 2 Jahren
  5. Ashoka suk induction 8724 smal

    perfect video, perfect explanation, perfect content

    Von Enes V., vor etwa 3 Jahren
  1. Default

    Hi, Class Wolf,
    Die Thematik ist m.E. sehr verständlich dargestellt. Auf den Akzent habe ich nicht in erster Linie geachtet. Darum habe ich nochmals hingehört, habe aber nichts daran auszusetzen. - Was also bedeutet "doll", kannst du dieses Wort vielleicht auch etwas erläutern?

    Von Eemilelv, vor mehr als 3 Jahren
  2. Default

    Akzent ist bisschen zu doll :(

    Von Claas Wolf, vor mehr als 3 Jahren
  3. Default

    This video ist "simply divine" ! (And that is just an understatement)
    Thank you

    Von Eemilelv, vor mehr als 3 Jahren
  4. Skull cards

    Now I'm less confused ;D Thanks a lot ^^

    Von Katarina 1, vor fast 5 Jahren
  5. 537668 478275325557169 1653661044 n

    Its a very nice video Good Job :-)

    Von Achmed P., vor fast 6 Jahren
  6. Default


    Von Fotomodell Kate, vor fast 6 Jahren
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