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England – History 11:20 min

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Transkript England – History

Hello, here is Adrian. Today I will provide you a brief overview on the history of England. Let's start with the Middle Ages. Well, the Romans abandoned British Island in the fifth century. That was the reason when Celtic tribes started to fight for the reign over England. Some of them requested help from Germanic tribes: the Angles, the Saxons and Jutes. They stayed in England and founded seven kingdoms: Kent, Essex, Sussex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. They ruled over England to about 850 after Christ until the Vikings invaded Europe, not excluding England. They also managed to invade France and obtain a grant of land from the King of France. This area became a Duchy of Normandy with its inhabitants, the Normans. William I, Duke of Normandy also known as William the Conqueror successfully invaded England with 12,000 soldiers in 1066 and became William I, the King of England. His descendants have sat on the throne of England to this day. Worth mentioning is Henry II, who ruled over England in the 12th century. He established the famous University of Oxford. The 12th and 13th century is overshadowed by royal intrigues and troubled successions. This time is made famous by the legend of Robin Hood and Richard I, the Lionheart, who fought in the Holy Land. His brother, John Lackland absorbed the throne and started a another civil war. His grandson, Edward I Longshanks, fought wars mostly against Scots, who were led by famous William Wallace and Robert the Bruce. Let's move to the Renaissance which is remembered in the history as the reign of probably the most powerful kings of England: Henry XIII. He changed the face of England by passing the acts of union with Wales and changing his title of Lord of Ireland in the King of Ireland. Henry XIII divorced his first wife Catherine of Aragon and remarried Anne Boleyn. As a consequence, the Pope excommunicated Henry from the Catholic Church. As a return, Henry XIII proclaimed himself head of Church of England. Henry XII’s daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, brought England the first golden age. It was an age of great navigators, philosophers and playwrights like William Shakespeare. The reign was also marked by many conflicts. In 1588 the Spanish Armada attacked English fleet. Kingdom of England defeated the Spanish Armada and turned the Spanish attempt to conquer England away. Queen Elizabeth I’s successor was James I of England, who was also the King of Scotland. He created the United Kingdom. Now we are in the restoration period. The next King of England, Charles I was convicted and beheaded for high treason in 1649. It was a result of the Civil War between him and the English and Scottish Parliaments. That was the first time in the history that the English king was charged with high treason by the Parliament. From Charles I’s death, United Kingdom was ruled by the leader of the parliamentarians, Oliver Cromwell, who called himself Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. He tried to destroy English monarchy and transform England into a republic. His attempt was unsuccessful. Charles II, son of the King Charles I was the next King of England. Unfortunately he had countless illegal children. Therefore the throne was passed to his Catholic brother James. James was replaced by William III during the glorious Revolution in 1688. After his death, Anne, James’ second daughter, ascended the throne. She signed the act of union in 1707, joining the English and Scottish Parliaments and creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. Romantic period. Well, Anne died without descendants, so the English throne was passed to her German cousin, George of Hanover. Since 1714 he ruled over Britain even though he couldn't speak any English. But let's go to the time of his grandson, George III. His reign was marked by American, French and industrial revolutions. After seven years of American war of independence, 1776 to 1783, the king was forced to grant independence to the newly formed United States of America. This event encouraged French people to start their own revolution in 1789 and kill the King Louis XVI. They formed a republic. During that time in 1800, Great Britain and Ireland signed the Act of Union, forming one kingdom. French republic was weak, so the reign was taken over by Napoleon Bonaparte, who was ambitious to conquer the whole Europe. Admiral Horatio Nelson has defeated Napoleon's fleet at Trafalgar on the coast of Spain on 21st October 1805. This naval victory of Admiral Nelson and the Royal Navy was the end of the French Navy and the beginning of the British supremacy on the world sees. Another notable fact of this time is the beginning of the industrial revolution. James Watt has invented a steam machine which enabled mechanisation of the British manufacturing industry. Victorian Age. In 1837 the British throne was passed to Queen Victoria. It was the beginning of the British Empire. Victorian age was full of British conquest all around the world. The Queen ruled over more than 40 percent of the globe. Interesting fact is that she has the longest reign of any British monarch, glorious 64 years. Let's go to the 20th century. Queen Victoria's numerous children were married to almost all European royal families, through alliances escalated to the First World War, 1914 to 1918. The consequence in Britain was the creation of the Labour Party. England suffered from worsening economy which led to radical political changes. Women were granted a general suffrage as men in 1928. Very important event of the 20th century is the Second World War 1939 to 1945. Nazi Germany was becoming more powerful and aggressive. After invasion of Poland in September 39, Britain and France were forced to declare war on Germany. Winston Churchill was a Prime Minister during this time. He was very charismatic and encouraged British people to fight and not to surrender. Even though Britain was victorious, the war destroyed the British industry. Additionally the country was completely broke. This encouraged India, Pakistan and other British colonies to proclaim independence. In 1952, the British throne was ascended by the Queen Elizabeth II. She rules over Britain to this day. Her monarch family is the most popular family of the world. News about her Majesty, Prince Charles, William and Harry are published almost every day in the newspapers and tabloids. Not to forget about Princess Diana, who died tragically in a car accident in Paris on 31 August 1997. She was the wife of Prince Charles and mother of Prince William and Prince Harry. After her sudden death, people around the world were in deep sorrow. Due to her warm attitude she was called the People's Princess. Let us devote some time to the politics. Margaret Thatcher was one of the most significant prime ministers of the country. When she was elected in 1979 Britain was about to collapse. She reformed the railways, shut down inefficient factories and pulled the country out from the crisis. Her methods were very harsh and she was called the Iron Lady. Another important Prime Minister was Tony Blair from the Labour Party. He decided to support the USA in the Iraq War in 2003. This disappointed most of the British. Nowadays England and the UK is run by David Cameron from the Conservative party. He threatens to walk out from European Union unless it accepts the British intern interests. The English history to be continued. Thank you very much for watching this video. Have a wonderful day. See you. Bye bye.

8 Kommentare
  1. Thait8mdz1

    megacooles Video!

    Von Autoexperte Erik, vor 12 Monaten
  2. Default

    Super Video ich liebe ihre Videos!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Von Nicowald, vor etwa einem Jahr
  3. Default

    Das Video ist wirklich gut, aber könntest du vielleicht auch mal etwas über die Geschichte mit Queen Bodica damals machen? Fände ich cool;), denn das haben wir gerade als Stoff im Unterricht

    Von Silke Gotschy, vor etwa 2 Jahren
  4. 20150727 190158

    Sorry aber du kannst das ruhig übersetzen auf deutsch dann lerne ich auch was

    Von riyad m., vor mehr als 2 Jahren
  5. Default

    cool

    Von M Kleinhans, vor mehr als 3 Jahren
  1. Default

    cool

    Von Deleted User 77439, vor etwa 5 Jahren
  2. Img 1330

    Hallo Green Spirit, vielen Dank für den grossen Lob! Es folgen noch Videos zur Landeskunde Schottlands, Wales, Irlands und Australiens. Liebe Grüße!!! :)

    Von A. S., vor fast 6 Jahren
  3. Default

    Adrian, ich kann mir gut vorstellen, dass du bei einigen Zuschauern die lebenslange Lust auf Landeskunde entfacht hast. Und das vielleicht nicht nur auf British History, sondern auch auf spanische, italienische oder sogar portugiesische Landeskunde!

    Ich werde dein Video zum Anlass nehmen, meinen Schülern verstärkt die Landeskunde schmackhaft zu machen :-).

    Von Green Spirit, vor fast 6 Jahren
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