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Analysing Film Clips – Wie analysiere ich Filmausschnitte? 14:06 min

Textversion des Videos

Transkript Analysing Film Clips – Wie analysiere ich Filmausschnitte?

Hello, let me welcome you to this clip. If you want to learn how to analyse film clips, then you've chosen the right video. I'll teach you all the necessary terms and show you what they mean. I am only going to use English today, so you may want to have a dictionary near you in case you need to look up some words. I'll give you a tip: If you don't understand something I'm saying, simply click on the pause button and look the word up before you continue watching. In your final exam, there may be a film clip for you to analyse. Of course it's not possible to analyse the whole film because there simply isn't enough time. So what will happen is that you'll get a very short part of a film which usually goes together with some text as well, like for example a film review that you'll have to read and comment on. Let's now start talking about how to deal with the clips. There are 2 things that you must comment on: 1. The content. You must comment on what happens in the clip, and 2. You need to think about how it is shown to you. Of course in this video I can't help you with the contents, because that will depend on the specific film you'll be given, but I can help you a lot with the "how" part, how the content is shown. Let's start with the so called field size. This term describes the distance between the camera and the object or in other words, how far the camera is from the people or things shown. Let's start with the situation where the camera is really close to the object. This is called extreme close-up. In this case you usually see the face only or possibly a very detailed shot of an object. If the camera is a bit further away, it's only called close-up. Here you see the head and the shoulders. Let's go even further away and as you can see now, there is the head, the shoulders and a part of her upper body. We don't see any legs yet. This is called normal shot. Then there is the medium shot where you already see a bit of the person's legs, but not totally, just a little. If there's not a person in the clip but an object, you see just a part of it, maybe half of it. And then there's the so called full shot. As the name tells you, you see the full body from head to toes. Or if there's not a person but an object, you see it completely. And the last one is the long shot. Here you also see the whole person, but it is shown from a distance. Let's look at it again. Extreme close-up: You see a face in detail. Possibly you only see the eyes or the mouth. It gives particular attention to a detail from a very short distance to show its importance in a scene. Close-up: You see the head and the shoulders. It draws viewers' attention to somebody or something special. For example, it reveals somebody's feelings by showing his or her facial expression. Maybe they're crying or laughing. Normal shot: The head, the shoulders and a part of the upper body. Medium shot: You see quite a lot, but still not the whole body. Medium shot brings viewers closer to a person or to an action. Full shot: You see the whole person quite near. It gives us a complete picture of somebody or something. And long shot: You see the whole person in her surroundings, shown to you from a distance. It presents a larger picture for orientation. Okay, that was field size or in other words the distance between the camera and the object. Let's now focus more on camera movements. The camera will either move or not move. If it doesn't move, you call this a static shot. It really just stays on one place. It can give an impression of calmness. If it does move, it can move for example from left to right, and the exact term for this is "to pan left" or "to pan right". This gives a wider impression of a location. It may follow an action or show different characters. And then there is a camera movement which you describe with the words "to tilt up" or "to tilt down". This shows an object or person in full length. Then there is a so called crane shot. In this one the camera moves flexibly in all directions. This is a very flexible shot from different positions with smooth transitions. And then there is the tracking shot. This describes the camera that is put on a vehicle which is moving on the ground so that it can follow a moving action closely. For example, someone is running and so the camera follows the person all the way. This shot allows the viewers to follow an action closely at eye level and it may add speed to the scene. And of course then there is the zoom. You can have a zoom in or a zoom out. Zoom in concentrates your attention on somebody or something and a zoom out moves your attention away from it. Let's revise what we've just learned. If the camera doesn't move you call it a static shot. If it moves from left to right or the other way round, you call it "to pan left" or "to pan right". If it goes up or down, you call it "to tilt up" or "to tilt down". A crane shot is a very flexible shot and the camera moves in all directions. And with the help of tracking shot you can follow with your eyes someone running or going for a long time because the camera moves with the character. Or for example you follow a horse running or a car. And if the film maker wants you to pay attention to someone, there's a zoom in. But if they want to take your attention away from the details, there will be a zoom out. Let's now talk about the position and angle of the camera. The so called establishing shot gives you an overview of the location so that it can prepare you for what's going to happen. You can find this very often in the beginning of a film. It shows you the whole location and the camera moves usually quite slowly. Then there's the overhead shot which gives you an impression of the action or of the setting below from an unusual perspective. It's also called the bird's eye view, so you kind of feel like a bird when you're watching the scene. Okay, next is over-the-shoulder shot. This is typically used when 2 people are talking and you as a viewer feel like you're involved in the conversation as if you're behind the shoulders of one of the people. And then the dialogue partner is shown and you see the situation from the opposite side. This is called the reverse-angle shot. You're again behind someone but this time it's the other person and so you can see the dialogue partner. Alright, then there is high-angle shot. In this one, a person is shown from above and it often makes the character seem small and weak. Then there is the eye-level shot. This is the usual horizontal perspective which is often unnoticed by the viewer and it has no special function. Things are just shown on the filmed person's eye level. And the last one is the so called low-angle shot. This shows the person from below and they may seem larger than they really are. It could be used to show how important or powerful the character is. So remember: establishing shot, overhead shot, over-the-shoulder shot, reverse-angle shot, high-angle shot, eye-level shot, and low-angle shot. And a few more things to consider when you're analysing a film clip: Think about the body language of the people you see in the clip. Do they seem nervous, confident, tired, relaxed and how can you support this? Maybe they're biting their nails so they're nervous or they're looking down on the floor so they're depressed. Or they're rubbing their eyes so they're tired. Another thing to consider is the music. It tells you more about the atmosphere, the situations and the characters. And the last thing to think about is how the story is shown. Is it chronological? If it is, then you see all events happening one after the other. If it isn't, then it may be presented in flashbacks which is a technique which shows you something that happened before, something from the past. Or there could be the so called split screen in which you see 2 different situations that actually happened at different times but they're shown to you at the same time on one screen. Okay, I think this is really all you need to know about analysing film clips and before we finish, let me briefly summarize everything I've told you today. We've talked about the field size, the distance between the camera and the object. The terms that you should be able to use are the following ones: extreme close-up, close-up, normal shot, medium shot, full shot and long shot. Then we talked about camera movement. You should know the following terms: static shot, to pan left or right, to tilt up or down, crane shot, tracking shot and zoom in or out. After that we talked about the position and angle of the camera. There, I mentioned the establishing shot, overhead shot, over-the-shoulder shot, reverse-angle shot, high-angle shot, eye-level shot and low-angle shot. I know this is a lot to learn in just a few minutes. Luckily you can play this video over and over again. I hope this was useful. Have a wonderful day and see you soon. Bye!  

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3 Kommentare
  1. Default

    Kann mir mal bitte jemand den Unterschied zwischen dem "Over -the -shoulder shot" und dem " Reverse- angle shot" erklären? (wie kann man die zwei Möglichkeiten unterscheiden?)

    Von Shanty, vor etwa 2 Jahren
  2. Default

    I think this video ist more than helpful. Thank you so much :)

    Von Damla Ö., vor etwa 2 Jahren
  3. Default

    Ein wirklich großartiges Video!!! Du hast die wichtigsten Begriffe sehr übersichtlich erklärt und ich konnte sehr gut folgen!

    Von Kuhlmannmarion, vor fast 3 Jahren