Transkript Complex Prepositions: because of, in spite of, instead of
Hi, my name is Camilla and I come from England. Welcome to this video about complex prepositions. But warning: The whole video is in English, so it is probably a good idea to have a dictionary by the handing. So, what's our complex prepositions? The first preposition we'll looking at today is: because of which in German means: aufgrund or wegen. The second preposition is: in spite of which in German means: trotz. And the third one is: instead of which means: statt oder anstatt in German. So let me give you an example for the first one - because of: I didn't go outside today because of the bad weather. And now an example for in spite of: In spite of the rain, I still managed to have a nice day. And an example for instead of: I went to bed early, instead of going for a walk. So let's take a closer look at the first preposition - because of. Because of indicates, that there is always a reason that something is happend. Let's me give you some examples: Mary has to buy mens' shoes because of he giant feet. Because of her bad marks at school, Beatrice had to clean her mums' car. Ollie stopped eating meat because of a book he read. As you can see "because of" can come in the middle of a sentence or at the beginning of a sentence and in each case there is a reason that something happend. So, in the first example "because of Marys' giant feet" - that is the reason - she had to buy mens' shoes. In the second example the bad marks at school are the reason that Beatrice had to clean her mums' car. And in the third example the book, that Ollie read is the reason, that he stopped eating meat. So let's have a look at the second complex preposition - in spite of: This preposition indicates that something, for example a situation, has been disregarded. And in spite of that, something else will happen. For example: In spite of his pounding headache, Barry went to the party. Shirley took her dog for a walk in spite of the heavy snowfall warnings. In spite of having be told not to, Magda ate the whole chocolate cake. As you can see, as if because of, inspite of can come at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle of the sentence. As I mentioned before "in spite of" shows, that something is proofed to be irrelevent or has been disregarded. So in this case in the first example Barrys' punding headache is irrelevant. He still wants to go to the party. In the second example Shirley took her dog for a walk even though there is heavy snowfall, and in the third example Magda had been told, not to eat the whole chocolate cake, but she disregarded this and still ate it. And now let's look at the third complex preposition - instead of. This preposition indicates that there is another option. Another option is available, so if something has been considered but something else has been decided upon. For example: Instead of his usual coffee, Tim decided to drink green tea. Sophie went to the park instead of going to school. Instead of green, I will wear purple today, thought Simon. Yet again, instead of can come at the beginning of the sentence or it can appear at the middle of a sentence. And, as I said, it shows, that there is another option. So, in the first example Tim usually drinks coffee but he decided on another option, and that was to drink green tea. In the second example Sophie should have gone to school, but she decided on another option and went to the park instead. And in the third example Simon, who usually wears green, decided to do something else, and he chooses the other option and wear purple. Right, before we finish I am going to give you a little test. Have a look at these 3 sentences and see, if you can fill in the gaps with the correct complex preposition: Number 1: Hannah ate chips ... salad. Number 2: ... the sunny weather, they went to the beach. Number 3: ... feeling ill, Ed still went climbing with his friends. So, here the answers: Number 1: Hannah ate chips instead of salad. So, she has 2 options: chips or salad and she chose chips. Number 2: Because of the sunny weather, they went to the beach. In this example, the sunny weather is of course the reason and that is why we use the preposition because of. and Number 3: In spite of feeling ill, Ed still went climbing with his friends. So, Ed is feeling ill, but this is beeing disregarded, and he has chosen to still go climbing with his friends. Great! You made it to the end of the video and I hope it has been a bit helpful. But now, because of the time, I'm afraid, I need to go. So take care and see you soon. Bye!