Analysing Graphs, Diagrams and Statistics – Wie analysiert man Grafiken, Diagramme und Statistiken? 14:40 min
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Transkript Analysing Graphs, Diagrams and Statistics – Wie analysiert man Grafiken, Diagramme und Statistiken?
Hello, how are you doing today? In this clip you are going to learn everything you need to know about analysing graphs, diagrams and statistics in the English language. At the end of this clip you'll be able to describe different kinds of graphs and charts, using the right vocabulary and sentence structure. I am only going to use English today, so you may want to have a dictionary near you, in case you need to look up some words. I'll give you a tip: If you don't understand something I'm saying, simply click on the pause button and look the word up, before you continue watching the video. Let's start. In this clip we'll be talking about 4 basic types of presenting numbers on paper. Type 1: The bar chart. Type 2: The pie chart. Type 3: The graph. Type 4: The table. We'll go through each one in detail, so you get to know all the vocabulary you need. We'll start with the bar chart: This visual aid is used to compare unlike or different items. Typically you have a number of items, for example fruits, and you have also 2 or more time references, for example 2 different months or years. Let's take the example with different types of fruit and their sales in 2 different months. So we'll have a chart that compares monthly sales for 2 months from a fruit home-seller. Look at this bar chart closely and study: The title, the key and the axis. The title says 'Fruit sales in kilos'. So we're looking at how many kilos of which fruit was sold in 2 given months. The key specifies which 2 months we're looking at, July and October. And the axis give us information about kilos and different types of fruit. Now: Think how you could describe this chart. Write sentences about the changes in fruit sales from July to October. Use the words from the box: a quarter, a third, doubled, fell by, halved, rose by, tripled. Let's start with oranges. Orange sales doubled. Apple sales fell by a quarter. Lemon sales rose by a third. Banana sales halved. Apricot sales tripled. Did you notice what grammar tense was used in the previous sentences? 'Apple sales fell by a quarter' - we used simple past because we're describing what happened between the months of July and October in 2008. So it's all in the past. Let's look at pie charts now. It's called a pie chart because it really looks like a pie. The pie represents the whole of something - a hundred percent - and if you cut it into pieces, you'll get little parts of the whole. So a pie chart displays the size of each part as a percentage of a whole. Study these 2 pie charts. They show us the highest level of education of women in Eastern Europe in the year 1935 and in 1995. Please notice that I've made these numbers up and they're not true. A possible task could be: 'Describe the information given in the 2 pie charts.' Before you'll start thinking about this, remember that you're not asked to give your own opinion. You must describe the graphic information objectively. What you should do here is to compare and contrast the 2 pie charts. This means that you should think of the things that are the same and then about differences. It should have an introduction, body and conclusion. Okay, let me give you a suggestion how you could write this description. In the introduction it's good to write 1 general sentence that sums up what the charts are about and comment on 1 most obvious feature: 'The pie charts compare the highest level of education achieved by women in Eastern Europe across 2 years, 1935 and 1995. It can be clearly seen that women received a much higher level of education in 1995 than they did in 1935.' Now, in the main part of the text, you should give more details: 'In 1935 only 14 % completed their secondary education and 1 % went on to a first degree. No women had completed post graduate studies. This situation had changed radically by 1995. In 1995, 90 % of women in Eastern Europe had completed secondary education, and 10 % had gone on to post graduate studies. This is in stark contrast to 1935 when only 45 % of girls completed third grade and 40 % had no schooling at all.' And now it's nice to finish your text with a short conclusion: 'In conclusion, we can see that in the 60 years from 1935 to 1995 there were huge positive developments to the education levels of women in Eastern Europe.' In this description notice again that we have used the past tenses. This is because the time periods that we mentioned are all in the past. Alright, are you still with me? Get ready because now we'll discuss graphs and these are a really common visual aid, so it's good to know how to describe them. Ready? A graph, also called a line chart, shows changes over a period of time, showing data and trends. There are different movements where the line can go. It can go up or down or not move at all. Let me show you some useful vocabulary that you can use for each of these 3 types. Let's start with the movement 'up', verbs you can use are: increase, rise, go up, grow, jump, reach a peak. Many of these words can also be used as nouns, for example: to increase - as a verb - and an increase - as a noun. In this context, if you know the synonym to a phrase or verb, you should rather use that synonym. For example you can describe this graph like this: 'The sales went up by 5 %.' Or like this: 'The sales rose by 5 %.' Here, the second version is better. Verbs describing a downward movement are: decrease, fall, decline, drop, plunge. Again, some of them can also be used as both verbs and nouns: to decrease, a decrease. And the last group, verbs that describe no or a little movement: remain stable, stay constant, stabilize, keep stable, fluctuate. You should also be aware of some adjectives and adverbs like: slight/slightly, moderate/moderately, significant/significantly, wild/wildly, steep/steeply. Let's see how well you you can recognize all of these. Look at the following sentences and decide with which picture they go together: 'Customer numbers fluctuated slightly.' 'Customer numbers plunged.' 'Customer numbers fluctuated wildly.' 'There was a steep rise in customer numbers.' 'Numbers fell steadily.' Now, here is your first graph. Which sentence describes it? It's number 4: 'There was a steep rise in customer numbers.' Next picture, which sentence is it? It's number 1: 'Customer numbers fluctuated slightly.' And this? That's number 2: 'Customer numbers plunged.' Now, look at this one. And that's number 3: 'Customer numbers fluctuated wildly.' And the last one is this: 'Numbers fell steadily.' Okay, we're almost done. There is only 1 topic left: tables. A table is a nice way to show large amount of data or information in a small space. Let's look at a table that shows how many hours of freetime people have and how they spend them in a country 'X'. How can you describe this table? Start by studying it in great detail. What can you see? A nice introductory sentence could be for example: 'The table shows how people in different age groups spend their leisure time in the country 'X' over the course of a year. It can be clearly seen that the amount of leisure time available varies considerably across the age groups.' Then, look for differences and similarities: 'The table shows that the 2 groups that spend most time watching tv are teenagers, 1200, and people over 70, 1100. There's a decline in the time spent socializing as people grow older with teenagers spending 300 hours a year and people over 70 spending 150 hours.' You could also add a few more sentences describing similarities and differences. And then: don't forget to include a conclusion which can actually be very similar to your introduction. You've noticed that in this description we've used the simple present tense. That's because there's no past time reference or anything like that. Before you go, let me remind you of a few useful phrases for the beginning of any visual aid description - be it a pie chart or a graph. Notice the simple present tense in every beginning: 'The graph shows ...' 'The diagram outlines ...' 'This table lists ...' 'This pie charts represents ...' 'This line chart depicts ...' Good! Thanks for listening til the end. If you want to revise what you've just learned, why don't you watch this video one more time? Have a nice day, bye.
Sehr ausführlich! :)
PERFECT ... i like your lessons !!!